Top 20 Azure Administrator Interview Questions

Microsoft Azure is the second-most popular Cloud service provider according to prospects. Because of its affordable IaaS solutions, more than 80% of Fortune 500 companies trust Microsoft Azure to fulfill their Cloud service responsibilities. Many businesses are now hiring Azure-certified specialists for a variety of inside job postings. Cloud Administrator is one of the most sought-after Azure occupations. Azure Administrators are highly sought after in the market.

If you are one of the candidates who are trying to get a decent job as an Azure Administrator, you need to prepare yourself well for your dream job. Here are 20 questions that were asked to aspiring Azure Administrators during job interviews.
Question 1: How do you define Azure Administration?
Answer: Azure Administrators are responsible for executing, observing, and maintaining Microsoft Azure solutions. They include major services related to Compute, Security, Network, and Security.
Question 2: What’s Azure Active Directory? What does it have to do with subscriptions?
Answer: Azure Active Directory, also known as Azure AD, provides a cloud-based identity management service that allows you to manage Azure resources. It has a one-to many relationship with subscriptions. An Azure subscription can only trust one Active Directory instance, but multiple subscriptions may be associated with that Azure Active Directory instance.
Question 3: Define Azure Subscriptions.
Answer: An Azure subscription allows you to access Azure resources. It contains information about all your resources, such as virtual machines (VMs), databases and more. You can distinguish an Azure resource, such as a VM when you create it.
Azure subscription denotes:
Security boundary and billing entity
Container that holds users
Azure services monthly charges
Question 4: Can an organisation have more than one Azure Directory
Answer: Yes. An organization can have multiple Azure Directory accounts.
Question 5: What roles and responsibilities do Azure Administrators have?
Answer: An Azure administrator is responsible for executing and monitoring Microsoft Azure solutions. They also provide significant services related computing, storage, security, networking, and network. Azure administrators will also be responsible for managing storage solutions for VM virtual disks, database files and user data.
Question 6: Who uses an Azure Active Directory?
Answer: Azure AD is primarily intended for:
IT Admins: IT Admins use Azure Active Directory to manage app access and resource usage according to business requirements. Azure AD is also used to automate client provisioning between your existing Windows Server AD and cloud applications, including Microsoft 365. Azure AD provides powerful tools that automatically verify user identities and credentials, and meet access governance requirements.
App Developers: An App Developer uses Azure AD to add a single sign on (SSO) to an application. This allows it to use client’s pre-existing credentials. It also provides APIs that allow you to create a custom application experience by utilizing existing organizational data.
Online subscribers to Microsoft 365 and Office 365 are eligible for Azure AD. This is included in the Microsoft 365 subscription, Office 365 subscription, Azure subscription, Dynamics CRM online subscription, and Microsoft 365 subscription. It can be used to manage access to your cloud applications.
Question 7: Define Azure Virtual Machines.
Answer: Azure Virtual Machines or virtual machines are on-request computing resources that are provided by Microsoft Azure. We cannot answer your question.

Interview Questions for Top 20 AWS Architects

Are you an AWS Architect and are you preparing for your next job interview. These are the most recent AWS architect interview questions that you should read as part of your preparations.

AWS, or Amazon Web Services, is currently the most prominent public cloud service provider. It is present in multiple companies’ tech stacks. AWS’s rising popularity has led to a greater demand for AWS as a career option. AWS is the preferred platform for cloud computing professionals looking to make a career.
AWS’s solutions architect job is one of the most promising. The average annual salary for this role is $130,883. Candidates often search for AWS architects interview questions. This list of questions will give you a good idea of the types of AWS interview questions candidates can expect.
Check out these:
AWS Solutions Architect Associate Training
AWS Solutions Architect Professional Training
Basic AWS architect interview questions
What is Amazon EC2 exactly?
Amazon EC2 (or Elastic Compute Cloud) is an AWS service that allows you to achieve highly scalable computing capacities. Amazon EC2 allows you to deploy and develop applications faster by eliminating the need to invest in hardware.
What is Amazon3?
Amazon S3 (or Simple Storage Service) is an AWS storage service. Object storage allows for the storage and retrieval of large amounts of data regardless of where they are located. It is also unlimited and users can access it whenever they need.
What is Identity Access Management?
Identity Access Management (IAM in AWS) is a web service that allows secure access control to AWS services. It allows for the management of users and security credentials, such as access keys and permissions.
What is Amazon Route 53?
Amazon Route 53 is a Domain Name System service (DNS) that offers greater scalability, availability, and security. Named after the TCP port 53 or UDP port 53, which is the address where all DNS server requests are addressed,
What is the process for sending an Amazon S3 request?
Amazon S3 can be requested via the REST API. You can also use AWS SDK wrapper library that contains the Amazon S3 API below.
Is encryption recommended for S3 or not?
S3 is a proprietary technology so users should consider encryption to protect sensitive data.
CloudFront allows you to define geo restriction.
Geo Restriction, also known as geoblocking or geoblocking, is a process that restricts user’s access privileges to content distributed by a specific CloudFront distribution.
What is a T2 instance, you ask?
T2 instances are designed to provide moderate levels of baseline performance. They can also be extended to meet the demands of the workloads.
What is a serverless app in AWS?
The Serverless Application Model (SAM), which is available in AWS, allows for the expansion of AWS CloudFormation’s capabilities. Users can use the SAM to create Amazon API Gateway APIs, Amazon DynamoDB table, and AWS Lambda functions for their serverless applications.
What are the uses of Amazon ElastiCache
Amazon ElastiCache is a web service that makes it easier to deploy, operate, and scale in-memory storage or cloud data caches.
Recent AWS Architect Interview Questions & Answers
What is the difference between terminating an instance and stopping it?
An instance is stopped by a normal shutdown. Then it switches to the’stop state’. An instance that is terminated goes through a normal shutdown. The attached Amazon EBS volumes can only be deleted if the deleteOnTermination attribute is set to true.
Can I change the private IP address for an EC2 instance that is running on a VPC or has been stopped?
The primary private IP address cannot be changed. How to

Top 15 Interview Questions For Threat Hunters

Threat hunting is the process of looking for cyber threats that go unnoticed in networks, data sets, and endpoints. This involves looking deep into the environment to find malicious actors. Threat hunting is essential to avoid such attacks. Hackers and attackers can hide in the network for months, quietly collecting your login credentials and confidential information.

The methods of incident response and threat hunting have improved over time. Organizations are now able to use advanced methods to identify threats using professional threat hunters, even before any damage or loss occurs. Our Threat Hunting Professional Online Course will enhance your skills and help you understand threats and their goals.
InfosecTrain’s online training course Threat Hunting Professional teaches you how to identify potential threats and become a more balanced penetration tester. Our experts will show you how to hunt for threats across the network.
InfosecTrain has prepared a few questions and answers to help you prepare for interviews. Here are the details:1. What is cyber threat hunting? It is a type active cyber defense. It is “the practice of scanning networks proactively and continuously to identify advanced threats that elude traditional security measures.”
2. Pen testing is a way to see how an adversary might gain access to your environment. It exposes risky IT practices and highlights the dangers associated with not protecting the environment.
Threat hunting allows you to see who is already in your environment and what they’re doing. It provides information about the current environment and the challenges facing the company.
3. Is it possible for some Threat Hunting exercises to yield nothing? Yes, theoretically. However, it is not impossible to find other vulnerabilities in these exercises. We may also discover some that we did not know existed. Even if there are no threats, it is still a good idea to conduct thorough threat hunting.
4. Yes, it is possible to use the information gathered during a hunt to improve security in organizations. Security teams can use threat data gathered during hunts to understand why they didn’t find the threats and then develop a strategy to detect future attacks. Skilled hunters know that gathering danger data is a major part of their job. This can be used to create stronger, more effective defenses.
5. What is MITRE ATT&CK (r)? It stands for MITRE Adversarial Techniques, Techniques and Common Knowledge and is a trademark of MITRE. The MITRE ATT&CK framework, which is a collection of knowledge and a paradigm to describe cyber adversary behavior, represents the many stages of an adversary’s attack life cycle as well as the technologies they are known for.

6. What is Mitre ATT&CK? Red teamers, threat hunters, and defenders use MITRE ATT&CK to better identify cyberattacks and assess an organization’s vulnerability.
7. What are the different Threat Hunting methods?
Target-Driven
Technique-Driven
Volumetric Analysis
Frequency Analysis
Clustering Analysis
Grouping Analysis
8. What is the primary purpose of Threat Hunting? To keep an eye on the network’s daily operations and traffic, and look for irregularities that could lead in full-blown breaches.
9. Please tell me more about the Threat Hunt hypothesis

Top 15 IBM Security QRadar SIEM Interview Questionnaires

1. What is Index?
An index is a collection of items that describe the data in a file, and where it is located in the system. The indexing of data can be done immediately or upon request after data has been collected. It allows for efficient and easy search optimization.
2. What is index management?
Index management is used for controlling the indexing of the database based on flow and event properties. There are some properties in the IBM QRadar index management window. These properties can be set up to index. Indexed properties allow for better search optimization.
The index management feature also offers the following statistics:
The percentage of searches that have been saved
The index measures the volume of data that has been stored on the disk during the specified time period.
3. What is the function and purpose of the index management toolbar
The index management toolbar allows you to perform the following functions.
To enable the index, select the property you wish to index from the index management toolbar, and click on the enable the icon.
Disable the index: Select the property from the index management list, and click on the icon to disable the index.
Quick search: You can quickly search for the property in the index management listing by entering the keyword related to the property in this quick search field.
4. What is the reference set?
The IBM Security QRadar Reference sets store data in a list format. The Reference set stores business data such IP addresses and usernames that are collected from events and flows in the network. It contains unique values for searching, filtering, testing rule conditions, and other functions.
5. How do we add elements to a reference collection?
It is important to ensure that the reference set has a.csv file before adding elements. This is how to add elements to a reference list:
Click on Admin to open the navigation menu.
Select the System configuration section and click on reference set management.
Select the reference set where you want to add elements.
Click on View Content and choose the Content tab.
Click on Select File to browse the.csv file you wish to import.
Click on the Domain where you wish to add reference set data.
Click on import.
6. What is the purpose of the QRadar Qflow collector
QRadar Qflow tracks network flows from all devices connected to a network. It also records live and recorded feeds like Network taps, Netflow, QRadar flows logs.
7. How do we schedule updates?
As per the settings on the update configuration page, IBM Security QRadar automatically updates on a recurring basis. You can schedule large updates to run off-hours so that your system’s performance does not suffer.
You can schedule updates as follows:
To open the admin tab, open the navigation menu.
Click on Auto-update in the system configuration section.
The list allows you to select the type of updates you want from the schedule.
You can use the calendar to select the day and time you want to start the update.
8. How do we view the pending updates
You can view the pending updates in the updates window. The system is set up for automatic weekly updates. If the system does not show any updates, it means that it has not been in operation for too long. You will need to manually check for updates.
Follow the below-mentioned process to check for updates
Click on the navigation menu, and choose Admin.
Select auto-update in the system configuration section.
Click on the update to view more information.
9. What is a retention bucket?
Retention buckets are used to determine how long event and flow data will be kept in IBM Security QRadar. QRadar compares each event and flows data received and stores it in the retention bucket according to the retention bucket filter criteria. After the deletion period expires, the data is automatically deleted. This period is defaulted to 30 days.
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Top 15 Cybersecurity Certifications to Impress the Market in 2020

2020 is fast approaching and there are many new career opportunities in cybersecurity for those who want to succeed in the future. It is a sure way to be valued as an expert in Cybersecurity, and we all agree. It can give you a tremendous boost in your career. Therefore, it is a smart decision to earn multiple certifications in a desired field.

Cybersecurity professionals must be aware that the field is constantly evolving and professionals need to keep their skills current to remain relevant in this system. Cyber Security is a vast field that offers opportunities for professionals with diverse skills in Application Security and Networks Information Security. If a certification worked for your friend, it doesn’t necessarily mean that it will work for you unless you are in the same field of security. InfoSecTrain conducted a survey to identify the top 15 most useful certification courses for 2020. We know that most certifications in cybersecurity can be expensive and time-consuming. We don’t want to see you waste your money on something that is not relevant to your career.
Here is a list with the top 15 Certifications. You just need to go through the certifications, choose the ones that suit your professional needs, and then earn them to make a big leap in your career.
AWS Security
AWS is a well-known cloud service provider that is growing at a rate of 43 percent year-on-year. This shows that AWS is poised to expand their cloud computing market share. This acceptance means that you will be a preferred choice for organisations if you are AWS certified. According to the most recent survey, AWS Security certified professionals earn an average of $113.932 USD per year.

Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP).
Only the best candidates and professionals are eligible to receive CISSP Certification. They must have extensive experience in building safe systems and responding quickly to a variety of threats. According to Times Jobs survey, 20,000,000 new jobs will be created by 2022 for CISSP-certified engineers in various IT sectors. CISSP Certification requires 10 years of IT security experience. This certification is for IT professionals who are skilled in advanced information security. CISSP Certified professionals earn almost 35% more than their non-certified counterparts.

CompTIA’s Security+
CompTIA Security+ is designed to provide the essential knowledge necessary for effective cybersecurity. This certification also serves as a ladder that takes you to higher levels of IT security jobs. CompTIA Security+ certified professionals are the best choice for any company. They are not only skilled in solving cybersecurity problems but also know how to spot potential security breaches before they happen. Security+ is the minimum level of certification required to validate the core skills needed to perform core security functions within an organisation.

Certified Cloud Security Professional (CCSP).
ISC2 offers CCSP certification specifically for data security professionals with at least 5 years of experience. This certification must include at least one year of cloud security experience and three years of data security expertise. This certification is ideal for anyone involved in data security, IT design, management, web and cloud security construction, risk and compliance filed.

Certified Information Security Manager (CISM).
CISM Certification is just a step below CISSP and is a popular course with t

PENT Exam?

Cybersecurity has become a critical issue due to the rise in cybercrimes over recent years. To assess their security posture, companies conduct extensive security testing. The company requires skilled Penetration Testers to run security tests to determine if malicious attackers might be able to breach the systems. The CPENT certification gives you the knowledge and skills you need to become a professional penetration tester.
Table of Contents
Introduction to CPENTCPENT outlineCPENT exam informationWho should apply for CPENT certification? How can you prepare for the CPENT exam?

Introduction to CPENT
The EC-Council’s Certified Penetration Testing Professional is a high-level certification course designed for Penetration Testers. This certification will allow you to become one of the most skilled Penetration Testers in the world. The CPENT certification program teaches you how to conduct a practical penetration test using filtered networks, IoT and OT systems. This certification provides hands-on instruction in various techniques and penetration testing principles, allowing students to understand real-world dynamics and overcome industrial obstacles.
CPENT outline
The 14 modules of the CPENT certification assess a Penetration Tester’s ability to effectively cover all aspects of cybersecurity.

Module 01: Introduction to Testing for Penetration
Module 02: Penetration Testing Scoring and Engagement
Module 03: Open Source Intelligence (OSINT)
Module 04: Social Engineering Penetration Testing
Module 05: Network Penetration Testing-External
Module 06: Network Penetration Testing-Internal
Module 07: Network Penetration Testing-Perimeter Devices
Module 08: Web Application Penetration Testing
Module 09: Wireless Penetration Testing
Module 10: IoT Penetration Testing
Module 11: OT/SCADA Penetration Testing
Module 12: Cloud Penetration Testing
Module 13: Binary Analysis & Exploitation
Module 14: Report Writing and Post Testing
Pre-requisites
CPENT is for security professionals and ethical hackers with a solid understanding of penetration testing. The CND and CEHv11/CEHv10 certifications are required for the CPENT certification exam. The following information must be understood by applicants before applying for the advanced certification:
Protocols for networking
Hacking techniques that are ethical
Wireless protocols and devices
Kali or ParrotOS
Standard penetration tools
Wireless penetration
Web application penetration testing
Information about the CPENT exam
CPENT is an online, proctored practice exam. Two certificates can be obtained by applicants who pass one exam. Candidates have two options: one 24-hour exam, or two 12-hour exams.
Exam NameCertified Professional in Penetration Testing (CPENT)Exam DurationYou have the option of:1. One 24-hour session2. Two 12 hour sessionsPassing scoreIf you score between 70%-90%, you will get CPENT certificationIf you score above 90%, then you get a Licensed Penetration Tester (LPT) Master credentialExam Format Performance-basedLanguagesEnglishNote: The CPENT exam combines two certifications into a single exam. Depending on your passing grade, you will receive either the CPENT Certification (or the LPT Master) certification.
Who should be certified CPENT?
This course is perfect for professionals in the following roles:
Hackers who are ethical
Penetration Testers
Network Server Administrators
Firewall administrators
Security testers
Security Engineer
Security Analyst
System administrators
Risk Assessment Professionals
How do you prepare for the CPENT certification examination?
Your success will depend on your preparation, your efforts, your plans, and your commitment to your profession. These are some tips to help prepare you for the CPENT exam. Understanding the exam: Before you begin your CPENT certification, it is important to understand all aspects of the exam.

How do you prepare for AZ 400

It is strongly recommended that you use the correct preparation guide to prepare for a certification exam. Here is a comprehensive study guide to help you prepare for the AZ400 exam. Let’s get started!
If you are looking for career opportunities in DevOps, you will have come across the Microsoft Certified Azure DevOps Engineer expert certification. Every DevOps professional has the unique opportunity to take the Microsoft Azure AZ-400 exam. Microsoft Azure’s role-based certification for DevOps engineer helps you demonstrate your ability to leverage DevOps in order to create business value.

Many candidates lack the necessary information to prepare for the AZ-400 exam. This article will help you find important information to help you prepare for the AZ400 certification exam. The most important thing is that readers will get a detailed overview of reliable pointsers to help them qualify for the certification.
Register Now: AZ400 Online Training
Microsoft Azure AZ-400 – Designing and Implementing Azure DevOps Solutions
Microsoft Azure introduced role-based certifications to help cloud professionals prove their skills and abilities for specific roles. It is now easier for potential candidates to find the right opportunity to start a career in DevOps. The AZ-400 exam: Designing and Implementing Azure DevOps Solutions is designed to demonstrate the skills and knowledge required to work in collaboration with people and processes.
The exam measures the ability to ensure that the development and operations teams of an enterprise work in collaboration with each other and bring other departments of the enterprise into it, making equal contributions to the projects.
A candidate’s success in preparing for the AZ-400 exam depends on how focused they are on the responsibilities as an Azure DevOps Expert. Candidates should learn how to design and implement strategies that ensure collaboration, source control and code compliance, code, compliance and infrastructure, continuous integration and continuous delivery, feedback, security, security, and continual testing.
Prerequisites for taking the AZ-400 Exam
Candidates should also be aware of the prerequisites for the exam in order to improve their AZ400 exam preparation. Prerequisites can help you determine if you are ready to take the exam. It is a professional-level Microsoft Azure certification, which demonstrates the importance of prerequisites.
Candidates who are interested in the AZ400 certification exam need to be familiar with Azure development and Azure management. Microsoft Azure also requires that candidates have at least one associate-level certification in Azure development or Azure administration. Candidates must be able to pass the Microsoft Certified Azure Administrator Associate or Microsoft Certified Azure Developer Associate certifications in order to be eligible for the AZ400 certification exam.
Skills tested in AZ-400 Exam
The next important aspect of AZ-400 exam preparation is the skills measured in exam. The exam skills outline can be used by candidates to determine the topics they should study for the exam. These topics will help you prepare for the exam and help you to succeed.
Development of an instrumentation strategy.
Design of a strategy to support Site Reliability Engineering (SRE).
Develop plans to maintain security and compliance.
Management of source control.
Communication and collaboration.
Determining the configurations necessary for continuous integration and their successful imp

How to prepare for AWS Certified Security Specialty

AWS, Microsoft Azure, and many other vendors are transforming today’s business environment with ‘Cloud computing’. AWS, or ‘Amazon Web Services’, is a top cloud service provider that powers startups as well as established businesses with services such storage, computations, databases, networking and analytics. These services allow organizations to achieve their business goals cost-effectively and effectively.

Despite so many customers and vendors entering the cloud market, AWS was named a leader in Gartner’s Magic Quadrant for Cloud Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), for the ninth consecutive year. (Gartner Report, Magic Quadrant for Cloud Infrastructure As a Service, Worldwide (2019).)
AWS has introduced many certifications, and the ‘AWS Security certification’ is one of them. It has gained widespread acceptance. Here are some details about the exam.
Exam validates skills
Here is a list of skills, which can be validated by the exam from the AWS website:
“An understanding of AWS data protection mechanisms and specialized data classifications
Understanding data encryption methods and AWS mechanisms to implement these techniques
Understanding of AWS mechanisms and secure Internet protocols is essential to be able to implement them
A working knowledge of AWS security features and features to ensure a secure production environment
Two or more years of experience in production deployment using AWS security features and services has given you the ability to demonstrate competence
Given a set application requirements, ability to make tradeoffs with regard to security, cost, and deployment complexity
“An understanding of security operations, and risk” (AWS-Certified Security – Specialty).
Experiences you should have before taking the exam
Two years of experience in securing AWS workloads
Minimum 5 years of IT security experience
About the exam
Here are the details:
Format of the examMultiple choice, multiple answersNo. Questions 170 Cost300 USD (40USD for practice exams) Languages offered in English, Japanese, Korean and Simplified Chinese. Delivered by Testing center. Grade750 out of 1000
Domains to examine:
There are five domains to the exam. Below is a list of their weightages.
Domain 1: Incident Response12%Domain2: Logging, Monitoring20%Domain3: Infrastructure Security26%Domain4: Identity and Access Management20%Domain5: Data Protection22. % How to prepare:
Book an exam date between 3 and 4 months in advance (depending on your AWS experience).
Prepare the necessary resources to study for the exam
You should establish a schedule to study for the exam (weekday or weekend). Also, plan for business trips as well as personal trips.
The week before the exam, revise
Take a day off from the exam to relax and get a good night of sleep
You will pass the exam with no problems!
Resources for the exam
There are many resources online, but these resources will help you pass the exam.
AWS Whitepapers and Guides
AWS Security Best Practices: AWS Security Tips: Learn how to protect your data, servers and applications with AWS
AWS Security Best Practices (AWS Whitepaper).
Mastering AWS Security: Create a secure cloud ecosystem
InfoSec Train also offers AWS Certified Security – Specialty Training. Contact us to learn more and pass the exam the first time! !

How do you migrate the server to Azure?

Azure Migrate can be used to migrate a server from one location to another. Azure migrate is a service that Azure administers to make it easy to migrate servers, infrastructures and applications to Azure Cloud. It’s a one-stop solution that allows us to assess the infrastructure we want to move to the Azure Cloud and then do the final migration.

Azure Migrate: Why do we need it?
We need Azure Migrate because:
Unified Migration Platform: This is a single platform that monitors and runs the migration to Azure Cloud.
A wide range of tools: It provides a wide variety of tools for monitoring and migrating.
Assessment and migration: Servers, databases, web applications, virtual desktops, and data can all be assessed and migrated to a hub.
Azure Migrate Tools
Azure Migrate hub includes some integrated tools. These tools can be used to migrate servers and databases, web apps, virtual desktops, data, and web apps. This makes it easier to migrate. These tools are:
Server Assessment: This is a basic tool that helps to assess the on-premises VMware, HyperVMs, and physical servers needed for migration to cloud.
Server Migration: This section focuses on the actual migration from VMware VMs, HyperVMs, and physical servers to Azure.
Database Migration Assistant: It assists in identifying potential obstacles to migration.
Database Migration Service: This service is used to migrate on premises Databases to Azure VMs. It includes running SQL, Azure SQL Database and Azure SQL managed instances.
It is useful in assessing servers. It simplifies the whole assessment process.
Web App Migration Assistant: It evaluates and migrates web applications from on-premises to Azure.

Azure Data Box: The Azure Data Box devices allow data migration in offline mode. They can transfer data to Azure even when networks are not available. This tool can be used to move large amounts of data to Azure even if you are limited by network availability or time.
Tips for server migration
Many businesses, both small and large, are migrating to the cloud as the world moves to the cloud. When migrating servers to Azure, there are a few things you should consider:
Your target: Before you start, it is important to first understand your entire model and then plan how it will look after the migration. It is important to have an approximate figure in your mind. It is very easy to manufacture things in the Cloud. It’s becoming easier to migrate data, applications, and servers to Azure. You can migrate your on-premises environment, other cloud platforms or your Hyper-V lab in your garage. This will build your confidence and process before you move to large workloads. It is easy to start small because there are many tools that can help you with migration. You’ll be able to migrate multiple workloads to Azure in no time. To implement standards, you can adopt the Azure policy. You can also create a hub and spoke virtual network with a single firewall. To help you meet your security access requirements, create custom RBAC roles.
You must consider the dependencies. After configuring the environment, you should check for server interdependency. Server interdependencies are an important consideration when migrating servers from one platform to another. The Azure Migrate Assessment tool makes it easy to identify them. With the Dependency Analysis trait, we can acquire visual information about processes and connections running inside your current environment.Sometimes, small workloads may not be standalone solutions. They might have dependencies on another system that we cannot see.

How to Lock Down AWS Security Groups

When I started working with Amazon Web Services (AWS), many years ago, one of the first things I noticed was that AWS sometimes uses terminology different from what I was used to as a Windows administrator. Microsoft refers virtual machines to VMs or virtual machines, while AWS refers as instances.
Sometimes however, AWS uses terms that have a completely different meaning than what a Windows administrator might think it means. One classic example is “Security Groups”.
In Microsoft-speak, a Security Group is a group whose members receive a common set permissions. For example, a security group could be used to grant permissions to a file or folder. AWS is an example of a security group.
AWS will create a new security team to manage access to the Elastic Compute Cloud instance (EC2) when you create it. You can see in Figure 1 that a Launch-Wizard-1 security group corresponds to an EC2 example. The figure also shows VPC security group, which is the default virtual private cloud.
[Click on the image to see a larger view.] Figure 1: EC2 creates a security group for each instance you create. Before you can use a security groups to lock down access to an instance, you must first determine which security group belongs. This is easiest to do by going to the console’s instances screen and selecting an instance. Next, take a look to the Description tab. Figure 2 shows that the Description tab lists the name and security group of the instance.
[Click on the image to see a larger view.] Figure 2: The description tab of an instance lists the name and security group for that instance. You can edit both the outbound and inbound rules for any security group. These rules can be accessed by going to the Security Groups Container (shown in Figure 1), selecting the security group you wish to edit, then choosing either Edit Inbound Rules, or Edit Outbound Rules from the Actions menu. Figure 3 below shows how to do this.
[Click on the image to see a larger view.] Figure 3: Choose either Edit Inbound Rules, or Edit Outbound Rules. Figure 4 shows the Edit Inbound Rules window. As you can see, one rule is created automatically. This rule allows RDP traffic to be sent over port 3389. If you want to remotely manage the instance, this rule must be in place.
[Click on the image to see a larger version.] Figure 4: This is an inbound rule that is defaulted to. Remote access is not always possible. In order to communicate with other instances and external services, an instance will often need to have rules that allow inbound traffic.
It is important not to create rules that are too permissive as you add rules. As an example, setting the source of the rule to 0.0.0.0/0 will allow inbound traffic from all IP addresses. If you want to allow the VM to receive communications via an external instance, service, or instance, the rule should refer to that service or instance’s IP address, and not just open the port to everyone.
Some servers, such as Web servers, can serve anonymous clients. For example, a Web server might accept traffic from anyone on port 80 or 443. It is dangerous to open a port to everyone, even though it might be possible. It is a better idea for a load balancer to be placed in front of the Webserver and then allow the load balancer to proxy requests to the Webserver. External clients will not be able to access the Webserver directly by doing this. Instead, the security group is configured so that inbound traffic can only be allowed to the load balancer.
The Edit Outbound Rules dialog, as shown in Figure 5, is very similar.